2 minute read

Spectral DeTuning is a new method that successfully recovers the original weights of generative models before they were fine-tuned with human feedback or other customization. It shows that pre-fine-tuning weights are recoverable and methods fine-tuned with LoRA can be susceptible to a new weight recovery type of attack.

Method overview

The paper first introduces the task of Pre-Fine-Tuning Weight Recovery. The goal is to recover the weights before fine-tuning given a model. In the paper, the assumption is that the model fine-tuning was performed using LoRA. Here’s an overview of the task:

Pre-Fine-Tuning Weight Recovery Setting - The attacker, with access to multiple Low-rank Adaptation (LoRA) fine-tuned models but without the models’ detailed low-rank decomposition, tries to reconstruct the original weights.

The Spectral DeTuning method uses the assumption that fine-tuning generative models often involves adjusting a relatively small set of parameters, leaving the underlying structure largely intact. By exploiting this characteristic, the method applies a spectral analysis technique to identify and reverse these minor adjustments, effectively rolling back the model to its pre-fine-tuned state. To recover Pre-FT (pre-fine-tuned) weights, the process involves predicting the original weight matrix (WP) from n fine-tuned weight matrices. This is done by utilizing differences in up to r principal components from these matrices and framing it as an optimization problem. Each LoRA (Low-rank Adaptation) fine-tuned model adds constraints to WP.

The authors also create a dataset (LoWRA Bench) that tackles this task. The dataset includes three main pre-trained source models: a Vision Transformer (ViT) for images, Mistral-7B-v0.1, and Stable Diffusion 1.5, covering both vision and language processing tasks. It features 15 LoRA fine-tuned models per source model across various datasets and objectives, totaling 544 source model layers and over 8,000 layers when including fine-tuned layers. This diverse set allows for extensive testing of methods to recover pre-fine-tuned model states, assessing their effectiveness across different model types, layer types, and depths.


The results are reported for different base models such as Stable Diffusion and Mistral. The results show that personalization methods that use LoRA are vulnerable to Pre-Fine-Tuning Weight Recovery attacks. The metrics depend from model to model. For Stable Diffusion, it uses LPIPS distance between the generated image by the Pre-Fine-tuned model and the recovered model, while for Mistral it’s the log cosine distance between the Sentence-BERT embeddings of the generated text for the Pre-Fine-tuned model and the recovered one.

Stable Diffusion results

Mistral results

Qualitative results for Stable Diffusion


The paper introduces Spectral DeTuning, a method to accurately and efficiently recover the exact pre-fine-tuning weights. It also raises important considerations for the security and integrity of fine-tuned models, as it reveals that seemingly irreversible changes can indeed be undone. For more details please consult the full paper.

Other resources

Code: https://github.com/eliahuhorwitz/Spectral-DeTuning

Project page: https://vision.huji.ac.il/spectral_detuning/

Dataset LoWRA: https://huggingface.co/datasets/Eliahu/LoWRA-Bench

Congrats to the authors for their work!

Horwitz, Eliahu et al. “Recovering the Pre-Fine-Tuning Weights of Generative Models.” (2024).